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Sources: Three Brothers Build Legacy in 20th Century U.S. Gambling

Desert Sun (Palm Springs, Calif.), “Gambling in Desert Was ‘Economic Driver’ in 1930s,” Renee Brown, April 9, 2016,

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Al Wertheimer Nabbed as Police Raids His Club,” March 13, 1929.

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Detroit Monte Carlo Closed by Decree,” May 1, 1927.

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Gambler’s Death Ends Famous Brother Act,” Ken McCormick, June 9, 1953.

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Gaming Place Found Veritable Arsenal,” Jan. 27, 1924.

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Reno Gambler, Ex-Detroiter, Dies,” May 20, 1958.

Detroit Free Press (Mich.), “Last of Famed Gambling Family Dies,” Riley Murray, July 21, 1958.

Hearings Before a Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce, U.S., Senate, 81st Congress, Second Session, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.

HuffPost, “Palm Springs: Moguls, Mobsters and Movie Stars Launched California’s Desert Playland,” Bob Schulman, May 15, 2013,

Jane’s History Nook, “Florida’s Casino Gambling and Bingo Madness – 1930s, 40s,” Jane Feehan, April 4, 2013,

Los Angeles Times (Calif.), “Hobnobbing in Hollywood with Grace Kingsley,” Oct. 11, 1933.

Mackinac Journal (Cheboygan, Mich.), “Cheboygan’s Famous (Infamous) Wertheimer Brothers,” Rick Wiles, 2018.

Organized Crime of Miami, Avi Bash, Arcadia Publishing: Charleston, 2016.

Palm Springs Legends: Creation of a Desert Oasis, Greg Niemann, Sunbelt Publications, 2005.

Palm Springs Life, “Explore Palm Springs: The Dunes Club,” Renee Brown, Jan. 29, 2016,

The Rise of the Biggest Little City: An Encyclopedic History of Reno Gaming, 1931-1981, Dwayne Kling, University of Nevada Press, 2000.