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Sources: Illegal Bookmaking Enterprise Flourishes in the City of Souls

Final Report of the Special Crime Study Commission on Organized Crime, State of California, Sacramento: May 11, 1953.

La Peninsula, “The Most Corrupt County: The Era of Prohibition and Gambling,” Carmen J. Blair, vol. 11, no. 2, Winter 2011.

Oakland Tribune, “Three Seized in S.F. Bookie Raid,” April 3, 1946.

San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office, “Office History,”

San Mateo Times (Calif.), “Crackdown on Reluctant Keen Witnesses,” May 5, 1952.

San Mateo Times (Calif.), “Report Revives Keen Findings,” April 29, 1953.

San Mateo Times (Calif.), “Report on  Keen Case Rapped [sic],” May 11, 1953.