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Sources: Gamblers Put the Squeeze On National Football League Players

Court of Appeals of the State of New York, “The People of the State of New York v. Harvey Stemmer, David Krakower and Jerome Zarowitz,”

Nevada State Journal, “Suspect Indicted on Two Counts in Bribe Case,” Dec. 17, 1946.

Nevada State Journal, “Jury Considers Fate of Three ‘Fix’ Gamblers,” March 9, 1947.

Nevada State Journal, “‘I Never Did a Thing Wrong’ Says Suspended Merle Hapes,” Ed Werkman, United Press, April 27, 1947.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Graziano Thought Fix Offer Was a Rib, He Tells Investigators,” Jan. 29, 1947.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Filchock, Hapes Hit by Testimony,” March 5, 1947.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Grid Fix Trial Calls Actress,” March 7, 1947.

Reno Evening Gazette (Nev.), “Paris Sentenced for Fix Attempt,” April 7, 1947.

The Philadelphia Enquirer (Pa.), “Supreme Court Upholds Sports Bribe Sentences,” May 3, 1949.

WhatCulture, “10 Most Severe NFL Suspensions Ever,” 2015,